Nepal’s foreign relations could not get expanded prior to the commencement of the Rana period as Nepal remained a remote country that time. The first Rana Prime Minister, Junga Bahadur Rana had adopted the policy of pleasing the British to make the Rana Rule unimpaired and long lasting.
For the same purpose, he had visited India and Britain as well. The successors of Junga Bahadur Rana also followed the policy adopted by him. But, after the British were forced to leave India in 1947 AD, the Rana rulers happened to become weaker.
As a result of this, democracy was established following the downfall of the Rana rule. Some diversification in the expansion of international relations was seen around the end of Rana rule as friendly relations had already been established with India, Britain, France and United States of America, however, the solid foundation for foreign policy had not been laid.
After the rise of democracy with the downfall of the Rana rule, there appeared change in secluded foreign policy and Nepal began to participate actively in international gatherings and conferences.
Faiths in the values and principles of the United Nations, nonalignment and friendly relationships with the neighboring countries are the main basis of the foreign policy of Nepal.
The Countries with Residential Embassy of Nepal
|1. Australia||2. Bahrain||3. Bangladesh||4. Belgium|
|5. Brazil||6. Canada||7. China||8. Denmark|
|9. Egypt||10. France||11. Germany||12. India|
|13. Israel||14. Japan||15. South Korea||16. Kuwait|
|17. Malaysia||18. Myanmar||19. Oman||20. Pakistan|
|21. Qatar||22. Russia||23. Saudi Arabia||24. South Africa|
|25. Sri-Lanka||26. Thailand||27. United Arab Emirates||28. United Kingdom|
|29. United States of America||30 Spain|
|The Foreign Countries with Residential Embassy in Nepal|
|1. Australia||2. Bangladesh||3. Brazil||4. China|
|5. Denmark||6. Egypt||7. Finland||8. France|
|9. Germany||10. India||11. Israel||12. Japan|
|13. North Korea||14. South Korea||15. Malaysia||16. Myanmar|
|17. Norway||18. Pakistan||19. Qatar||20. Russia|
|21. Saudi Arabia||22. Sri Lanka||24. Switzerland||24. Thailand|
|25. United Kingdom||26. United States of America||27. United Arab Emirates||Source: Ministry of Foreign affairs|
The major bases of Nepal’s foreign policy can be explained as follows:
The adoption of the view point of remaining impartial or neutral towards international events without being involved in the military alliance of any powerful country is nonalignment. Non-alignment means not getting involved in any sort of alliances.
But, this never means remaining silent on the world events. Nepal has been actively participating in the nonaligned movement since the very beginning.
2. Faith in Panchasheel
The following five points of Panchasheel have been taken as the major bases in course of extending international relations. This is one important basis of Nepal’s foreign policy:
- Mutual respect for each other’s freedom, territorial integrity and sovereignty,
- Non interference in the internal affairs of others,
- Maintaining equality and mutual benefits,
- Mutual non aggression (no attack by one country to another),
- Acceptance of the feeling of peaceful
3. Faith in the United Nations
With the faith and belief in the United Nations, Nepal has been stressing on the need of increasing its role and effectiveness for world peace and to increase friendship and cooperation among the countries.
Peace keeping forces have been deployed under the United Nations for the establishment of world peace in the border between Lebanon and Israel, Yugoslavia and Somalia etc.
4. Stress on Enhancing Regional Cooperation
Since South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) established in 1985 for increasing cooperation and understanding among the neighboring countries is deemed appropriate, Nepal has been stressing on its effectiveness and strengthening.
The establishment of SAARC Secretariat in Nepal should be seen in this perspective. Nepal is also affiliated to the regional organizations like; Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC), Asia Cooperation Dialogue, Sanghai Cooperation Organization etc.
Nepal has raised its voice strongly on minimizing the armament race and on investing the lavish amount of money spent in the sector in the areas like; education, health etc. for increasing the standard of social service and on removal of atomic weapons.
6. Protection of the Rights of Landlocked Countries
As being a small and developing country, Nepal has been stressing on the need to protect the rights of the landlocked countries by appropriately solving the problems faced by them.
7. Protection of the Rights of Small and Underdeveloped Countries
As being a small and developing country, Nepal has been stressing on enhancing the rights of the countries like it in regional and international forums.
8. Peaceful Resolution of Problems
Nepal has been stressing on the peaceful resolution to any international disputes and has the firm belief that use of force, threat and the war are not the permanent solutions to any problems.
9. Feeling of Good Neighborhood
As Nepal is a small country surrounded by two big countries (India and China), it has adopted the policy of establishing friendly relations with other countries of the world by establishing balanced and good relationship with these two countries.
10. Protest against Pressure and Discrimination
Nepal has been protesting openly against imperialism, colonialism, neo colonialism, expansionism, racism and apartheid, and supremacy and supporting the movements for freedom and anti apartheid.
11. Independent Foreign Policy
Nepal, by not becoming the follower of any country, has been putting forward its clear ideas independently using its own judicious mind and conscience. That is why Nepal has been sensitive about the incidents happening in the world although it is a nonaligned country.
10.1 United Nations and Nepal
The United Nations was established on 24th October, 1945 AD. Considering the welfare of all humankind of the world; peace, equality, cooperation and contact have been given priority in its Charter. Nepal obtained the membership of the United Nations on 14th December, 1955 AD.
There has been active participation and contribution of Nepal in the United Nations ever since Nepal obtained the membership. Nepal had been one of the five-membered committee constituted to deal with the issue of Oman in 1963.
Nepal was elected Vice Chairman of the special committee on apartheid in 1967 and later became acting Chairman too. Nepal was elected to the UN Security Council as a non-permanent membership for two times, in 1969-70 and 1988-89 AD.Nepal has also obtained the opportunity to work in UNESCO’s Executive Council and in different committees in 1974 and 1987 AD.
Nepal has been sending Nepal Police and Nepal Army to United Nations Peace Keeping Force to maintain peace and security since 1958 AD. King Birendra had delivered a key note speech to the Summit of the Least Developed Countries held in Paris in September, 1981 AD on behalf of the Least
Developed Countries of the United Nations. Nepal had sent its troops to monitor the ceasefire between Arab and Israel. Nepal Army has been playing special role to establish peace in different countries of the world on summons by the United Nations.
This is being highly evaluated by the world community. 13 people in total from Nepal have already served as permanent representatives to the United Nations till date.
The United Nations had also celebrated ‘World Peace Year’ in 1983 with the purpose of introducing Lumbini, the birthplace of Gautam Buddha, to the world. At present Nepal has been elected a member to the United Nations Human Rights Council for 2018-2020 from Asia Pacific Group.
Dates of Obtaining Membership of the UN’s Specialized Agencies by Nepal
|1||United Nations Organization (UNO)||14 December, 1955|
|2||International Labor Organization (ILO)||1966|
|3||Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)||27 November, 1951|
|United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
|1 May, 1953|
|5||World Health Organization (WHO)||10 May, 1954|
|6||International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)||6 September, 1961|
|7||International Development Association (IDA)||6 March, 1963|
|8||International Finance Corporation (IFC)||7 January, 1966|
|9||International Monetary Fund (IMF)||6 September, 1961|
|10||International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)||29 July, 1956|
|11||Universal Postal Union (UPU)||11 July, 1956|
|12||International Telecommunications Union (ITU)||5 December, 1957|
|13||World Meteorological Organization (WMO)||5 May, 1978|
|14||International Maritime Organization (IMO)||31 January, 1979|
|15||International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)||5 May, 1978|
|16||United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)||7 December, 1983|
|17||Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)||September,23 1992|